Chad is one of the poorest countries in the world, marked by low development, very limited availability of basic social services, and exposure to climate and environmental hazards.
The humanitarian situation is complex, and the needs are high. The country’s vulnerable population suffers mainly from the consequences of intercommunity violence, forced displacement, food and nutrition insecurity, floods and epidemics.
In 2022, the government issued 2 emergency declarations: one on 6 June, in light of the unprecedented food crisis that the country is suffering, and a state of natural catastrophe on 19 October following the unprecedented floods.
EU humanitarian aid provides, among others, protection and multi-sectoral assistance to forcibly displaced people, life-saving treatment for undernourished children, food assistance and environmental risks.
What are the needs?
Chad faces interlinked natural and human-induced humanitarian crises.
Some 6.9 million people require humanitarian assistance – roughly 39% of the population in 2023.
In 2023, over 1.7 million children under 5 years old require nutritional assistance. The November 2022 national nutrition survey shows that 1.5% of children under 5 suffer from severe acute malnutrition, the most serious form of undernourishment in children.
2022 recorded the worst lean season of the last decade with 2.1 million people severely food insecure. The projected figures for the 2023 lean season forecast 1.86 million people to be severely food insecure.
Violence and conflict in neighbouring countries have resulted in an influx of refugees and asylum seekers. Lack of resources and infrastructure means that the capacity to support displaced people is limited.
Last year, floods affected over 1.5 million people in 19 of the country's 23 provinces. In response, Chad activated the EU Civil Protection Mechanism and France mobilised a water purification module to assist affected people.
In 2022, an outbreak of intercommunity violence in Cameroon led more than 45,000 people to cross borders to seek refuge in Chad. In addition to the spillover of the Lake Basin conflict in the Lake Province, civilian populations are also victims of internal conflicts among communities competing for access to natural resources.
In 2023, since the start of the Sudan conflict, over 100,000 Sudanese refugees and 20,000 Chadian returnees have crossed the border to Chad, with numbers currently growing. They live in an extremely precarious situation.
Chad hosts one of the the largest number of refugees in West and Central Africa. The country already hosts around 671,000 refugees, of which around 497,000 from Sudan. Meanwhile, the number of people displaced internally has reached over 381,000.
Measles and yellow fever are also recurrent threats in the country and malaria is endemic.
How are we helping?
The EU is one of the main humanitarian aid donors in Chad. In 2023, the EU has allocated €30.5 million in humanitarian assistance to help the most vulnerable in the country.
On 31 May, the EU launched a Humanitarian Air Bridge to Chad to deliver essential supplies to partners assisting displaced people from Sudan.
In addition, the EU mobilised over €2 million to provide emergency relief to vulnerable people impacted by the Sudan crisis. Given the rapid deterioration of the humanitarian situation, the EU stands ready to do more.
Responding to the humanitarian needs
In 2022, the EU provided over €52 million in humanitarian aid to Chad to respond to the basic needs of internally displaced people, refugees and resident communities affected by multiple crises.
EU humanitarian funding has addressed the rising humanitarian needs triggered by conflict in the Lake Chad region. We have provided (i) further food and nutrition assistance; (ii) health care; (iii) education in emergencies; (iv) water, sanitation, and hygiene services; and (v) protection to communities in need.
In response to the food and nutrition crisis, the EU has funded assistance such as cash transfers, vouchers, food rations for families, ready-to-use therapeutic food, and essential medicines to treat severely malnourished children.
In 2022, the EU mobilised humanitarian funding to provide emergency relief to vulnerable people affected by floods in Chad. In addition, the EU mobilised additional funds to respond to the food security crisis.
Anytime needed, the EU responds swiftly to new crises while supporting disaster risk reduction so that people are less vulnerable to future crises.
The EU also finances the United Nations Humanitarian Air Service (UNHAS) in Chad. These flights help aid organisations reach people in need in remote or hard-to-reach areas.
In addition, the European Commission is providing €100 million in humanitarian assistance to support the rollout of vaccination campaigns in countries in Africa with critical humanitarian needs and fragile health systems.
Last updated: 01/06/2023
Facts & figures
6.9 million people need humanitarian assistance.
4.7 million people suffer from critical food shortages, of whom more than 1 million face severe food shortages.
671,000 refugees from the Central African Republic (CAR), Sudan, Nigeria and Cameroon.
- 497,000 Sudanese.(new arrivals currently increasing this figure due to the crisis)
- 125,000 from CAR
- 25,000 Cameroonians.
- 21,000 Nigerians.
381,000 internally displaced people.
78,000 Chadian returnees from CAR.
20,000 Chadian returnees from Sudan
24,000 Chadian returnees from the Lake Chad province.
EU humanitarian funding:
€30.5 million in 2023
Over €52 million in 2022.